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28-Sep-2015 : PPTs along with Policy.



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Energy Saving Tips

Tips - General 1. A roof garden can reduce the load on Air Conditioner 2. Activate "sleep" features on computers and office equipment 3. Air dry clothes. 4. Always use cold water in the rinse cycle 5. Always wash only with full loads 6. Avoid dry grinding in your food processors 7. Avoid putting hot or warm food straight into the fridge 8. Bring items taken out of refrigerators (like vegetables, milk etc) to room temperature before placing on the gas stove for heating 9. Clean or replace filters of air conditioners once a month or as recommended. 10. Close windows and doors when heating or cooling your home. 11. Combine errands into one trip. 12. Consider buying a highly fuel-efficient vehicle. 13. Consider telecommuting, carpooling and public transit to cut mileage and car maintenance costs. 14. Cook with small appliances. 15. Cover liquids and wrap foods stored in the refrigerator. 16. Decorate with lighter colors that reflect daylight 17. De-dust lighting fixtures to maintain illumination 18. Design and orient your new home to take advantage of the sun’s rays. 19. Do not bake large food items 20. Do not iron wet clothes 21. Do not open the doors of the refrigerators frequently 22. Do not put more water on clothes while ironing 23. Don't keep your refrigerator or freezer too cold. 24. Don't leave the fridge door open for longer than necessary 25. Don't place lamps or TV sets near your air-conditioning thermostat. 26. Don't set your thermostat at a colder setting than normal when you turn on your air conditioner. 27. Drive sensibly; avoid speeding, rapid acceleration and hard braking. 28. Get regular engine tune-ups. 29. Get regular maintenance checks of your vehicles to avoid fuel economy problems. 31. Inflate your tires to the pressure listed in your owner’s manual 32. Install a programmable thermostat to manage your heating and cooling systems efficiently. 33. Install exhaust fans at a higher elevation than ceiling fans. 34. Install solar-powered outdoor pathway lights 35. Insulate air conditioner's duct. 36. Keep regulators at “low cool” position 37. Keep your appliances clean and well-maintained 38- Look for ENERGY STAR label on electronic equipments. 39. Make sure your refrigerator door seals are airtight 40. Plant trees on South and West sides to keep your house cool. 41. Plant trees or shrubs to shade air-conditioning units but not to block the airflow 42. Prefer air conditioners having automatic temperature cut off 43. Prefer natural drying over electric dryers 44. Recycle Your Old CFLs 45. Replace conventional regulators with electronic regulators for ceiling fans. 46. Replace worn spark plugs, dragging brakes, sagging belts and transmission fluid. 47. Retrofit the roof with specialized heat-reflective material. 48. Run office equipments in Power Saver Mode. 49. Seal air conditioner's duct joints. 50. Select iron boxes with automatic temperature cutoff 51. Switch to energy efficient lighting - CFLs & LEDs. 52. Take advantage of daylight by using light-colored, loose-weave curtains 53. Turn off engine , while standing in traffic lights 54. Turn things off when not in use such as lights, TVs, entertainment systems, computers and monitors. 55. Use appropriate regulator position for ironing 56. Use electronic chokes in place of conventional copper chokes 57. Use flat-bottomed pans that make full contact with the cooking coil 58. Use hot water only for very dirty clothes 59. Use lids to cover the pans while cooking 60. Use Microwave Owens rather than conventional electric / gas stoves 61. Use optimal quantity of water 62. Use pressure cookers as much as possible 63. Use smaller cabinets for storing frequently used items 64. Use Solar Cookers. 65. Use solar water heaters. 66. Use task lighting : Focus the light where u need it. 67. Use the correct amount of detergent 68. Use the grade of motor oil your car’s manufacturer recommends. 69. Use timer facility to save energy 70. Use windows with sun films/curtains 71. Wash only full loads of dishes and clothes. 72. When cooking on a gas burner, use moderate flame settings to conserve LPG. Tips - Domestic 1. Conservation while Cooking • Keep all materials required for cooking within reach before lighting thestove • Pressure cooking saves fuel and time • Use optimum quantity of water • Reduce the flame when boiling starts • Soak ingredients before cooking • Shallow wide vessels save fuel • Use of small burner in a LPG stove saves fuel • Always put the lid to prevent heat losses • Clean the burners regularly • Allow frozen food to reach room temperature before cooking • For additional savings use ISI marked kerosene and LPG stoves 2. LIGHTING SYSTEM • One of the best energy-saving devices is the light switch. Turn off lights when not required. • Use a table lamp instead of an overhead light when reading at a desk. • Many automatic devices can help in saving energy used in lighting. Consider employing infrared sensors, motion sensors, automatic timers, dimmers and solar cells wherever applicable, to switch on/off lighting circuits. • As for as possible use task lighting, which focuses light where it's needed. A reading lamp, for example, lights only reading material rather than the whole room. • Clean your tube lights and lamps regularly as dirty tube lights and bulbs reflect less light and can absorb 50 percent of the light • Fluorescent tube lights& CFLs convert electricity to visible light up to 5 times more efficiently than ordinary bulbs and thus save about 70% of electricity for the same lighting levels. • ENERGY STAR-qualified LEDs use only about 20%-25% of the energy and last up to 25 times longer than traditional incandescent bulbs. • Use Electronic ballasts in place of conventional electromagnetic ballasts. • Construction of a house should be designed to get maximum sunlight & ventilation. 3. Room Air Conditioners • Use ceiling or table fan as first line of defence against summer heat. Ceiling fans, for instance, cost about 30 paise an hour to operate - much less than air conditioners (Rs.10.00 per hour). • You can reduce air-conditioning energy use by as much as 40 percent by shading your home's windows and walls. Plant trees and shrubs to keep the day's hottest sun off your house. • Using ceiling or room fans allows you to set the thermostat higher because the air movement will cool the room. • A good air conditioner will cool and dehumidify a room in about 30 minutes, so use a timer and leave the unit off for some time. • Keep doors of air-conditioned rooms closed as often as possible. • Clean the air-conditioner filter every month. A dirty air filter reduces airflow and may damage the unit. Clean filters enable the unit to cool down quickly and use less energy. • If room air conditioner is older and needs repair, it's likely to be very inefficient. It may work out cheaper on life cycle costing to buy a new energy-efficient air conditioner. • Switch off directional vanes provided in the air-Conditioner when not required. 4. Refrigerators • Avoid frequent closing and opening of refrigeration door. • Make sure that refrigerator is kept away from all sources of heat, including direct sunlight, radiators and appliances such as the oven, and cooking range. When it's dark, place a lit flashlight inside the refrigerator and close the door. If light around the door is seen, the seals need to be replaced. • Refrigerator motors and compressors generate heat, so allow enough space for continuous airflow around refrigerator. If the heat can't escape, the refrigerator's cooling system will work harder and use more energy. • A full refrigerator is a fine thing, but be sure to allow adequate air circulation inside. • Think about what you need before opening refrigerator door. You'll reduce the amount of time the door remains open. • Allow hot and warm foods to cool and cover them well before putting them in refrigerator. Refrigerator will use less energy and condensation will reduced. • Make sure that refrigerator's rubber door seals are clean and tight. They should hold a slip of paper snugly. If paper slips out easily, replace the door seals. • When dust builds up on refrigerator's condenser coils, the motor works harder and uses more electricity. Clean the coils regularly to make sure that air can circulate freely. • For manual defrost refrigerator, accumulation of ice reduces the cooling power by acting as unwanted insulation. Defrost freezer compartment regularly for a manual defrost refrigerator. 5. Water Heater • To help reduce heat loss, always insulate hot water pipes, especially where they run through unheated areas. Never insulate plastic pipes. • By reducing the temperature setting of water heater from 60 degrees to 50 degrees C, one could save over 18 percent of the energy used at the higher setting. • Use Star Labelled Water Heating Appliances • Solar Water Heating System (SWHS) shall be installed to reduce energy consumption. 6. Microwave Ovens &Electric Kettles • Microwaves save energy by reducing cooking times. In fact, one can save up to 50 percent on your cooking energy costs by using a microwave oven instead of a regular oven, especially for small quantities of food. • Remember, microwaves cook food from the outside edge toward the centre of the dish, so if you're cooking more than one item, place larger and thicker items on the outside. • Use an electric kettle to heat water. It's more energy efficient than using an electric cook top element. • When buying a new electric kettle, choose one that has an automatic shut-off button and a heat-resistant handle. • It takes more energy to heat a dirty kettle. Regularly clean your electric kettle by combining boiling water and vinegar to remove mineral deposits. • Don't overfill the kettle for just one drink. Heat only the amount of water you need. 7. Computers • Turn off your home office equipment when not in use. A computer that runs 24 hours a day, for instance, uses - more power than an energy-efficient refrigerator. • If your computer must be left on, turn off the monitor; this device alone uses more than half the system's energy. • Setting computers, monitors, and copiers to use sleep-mode when not in use helps cut energy costs by approximately 40%. • Battery chargers, such as those for laptops, cell phones and digital cameras, draw power whenever they are plugged in and are very inefficient. Pull the plug and save. • Screen savers save computer screens, not energy. Start-ups and shutdowns do not use any extra energy, nor are they hard on your computer components. In fact, shutting computers down when you are finished using them actually reduces system wear - and saves energy   Tips - Industries THERMAL UTILITIES 1. Boilers • Preheat combustion air with waste heat (22 0C reduction in flue gas temperature increases boiler efficiency by 1%). • Use variable speed drives on large boiler combustion air fans with variable flows. • Burn wastes if permitted. • Insulate exposed heated oil tanks. • Clean burners, nozzles, strainers, etc. • Inspect oil heaters for proper oil temperature. • Close burner air and/or stack dampers when the burner is off to minimize heat loss up the stack. • Improve oxygen trim control (e.g. -- limit excess air to less than 10% on clean fuels). (5% reduction in excess air increases boiler efficiency by 1% or: 1% reduction of residual oxygen in stack gas increases boiler efficiency by 1%.) • Automate/optimize boiler blowdown. Recover boiler blowdown heat. • Use boiler blowdown to help warm the back-up boiler. • Optimize deaerator venting. • Inspect door gaskets. • Inspect for scale and sediment on the water side (A 1 mm thick scale (deposit) on the water side could increase fuel consumption by 5 to 8%). • Inspect for soot, flyash, and slag on the fire side (A 3 mm thick soot deposition on the heat transfer surface can cause an increase in fuel consumption to the tune of 2.5%.) • Optimize boiler water treatment. • Add an economizer to preheat boiler feedwater using exhaust heat. • Recycle steam condensate. • Study part-load characteristics and cycling costs to determine the most-efficient mode for operating multiple boilers. • Consider multiple or modular boiler units instead of one or two large boilers. • Establish a boiler efficiency-maintenance program. Start with an energy audit and follow-up, then make a boiler efficiency-maintenance program a part of your continuous energy management program. • All possible attention should be paid to control excess air by monitoring oxygen level in flue gas and also by visual inspection of flame colour. • Use only treated water in boilers. A scale formation of 1mm thickness on the waterside would increase fuel consumption by five per cent to eight per cent. • Remove soot deposits when flue gas temperature rises 40°C above the normal. A coating of 3mm thick soot on the heat transfer surface can cause an increase in fuel consumption of as much as 2.5 per cent. • Recover heat from steam condensate. For every 6°C rise in boiler feed water temperature through condensate return, there is a one per cent saving in fuel. • Soot blowers can always be maintained in perfect working condition so that their regular and periodic use does not suffer. • Improve boiler efficiency. Boilers should be monitored for flue gas losses, radiation losses, incomplete combustion, blow down losses, excess air etc. • Proper control can decrease consumption up to 20 per cent. • Stop steam leakage. Steam leakage from a 3mm-diameter hole on a pipeline carrying steam at 7 kg/cm² would waste 32 kilolitres of fuel oil per year amounts to a loss of Rs. 3 lakh. 2. Steam System • Fix steam leaks and condensate leaks (A 3 mm diameter hole on a pipe line carrying 7 kg/cm2 steam would waste 33 kilo litres of fuel oil per year). • Accumulate work orders for repair of steam leaks that can't be fixed during the heating season due to system shutdown requirements. Tag each such leak with a durable tag with a good description. • Use back pressure steam turbines to produce lower steam pressures. • Use more-efficient steam desuperheating methods. • Ensure process temperatures are correctly controlled. • Maintain lowest acceptable process steam pressures. • Reduce hot water wastage to drain. • Remove or blank off all redundant steam piping. • Ensure condensate is returned or re-used in the process (60 degree C raise in feed water temperature by economiser/condensate recovery corresponds to a 1% saving in fuel consumption, in boiler). • Preheat boiler feed-water. • Recover boiler blowdown. • Check operation of steam traps. • Remove air from indirect steam using equipment (0.25 mm thick air film offers the same resistance to heat transfer as a 330 mm thick copper wall.) • Inspect steam traps regularly and repair malfunctioning traps promptly. • Consider recovery of vent steam (e.g. -- on large flash tanks). • Use waste steam for water heating. • Use an absorption chiller to condense exhaust steam before returning the condensate to the boiler. • Use electric pumps instead of steam ejectors when cost benefits permit • Establish a steam efficiency-maintenance program. Start with an energy audit and follow-up, then make a steam efficiency-maintenance program a part of your continuous energy management program. 3. Furnaces • Check against infiltration of air: Use doors or air curtains. • Monitor O2 /CO2/CO and control excess air to the optimum level. • Improve burner design, combustion control and instrumentation. • Ensure that the furnace combustion chamber is under slight positive pressure. • Use ceramic fibres in the case of batch operations. • Match the load to the furnace capacity. • Retrofit with heat recovery device. • Investigate cycle times and reduce. • Provide temperature controllers. • Ensure that flame does not touch the stock. • Recover and utilise waste heat from furnace flue gases for preheating of combustion air. Every 21oC rise in combustion air temperature results in one per cent fuel oil savings. • Control excess air in furnaces. A 10 per cent drop in excess air amounts to one per cent saving of fuel in furnaces. For an annual consumption of 3,000 kilolitres of furnace oil means a saving of Rs. 3 lakh (assuming the cost of furnace oil is Rs. 10 per litre). • Reduce heat losses through furnace openings.Observation shows that a furnace operating at a temperature of 1,000 °C having an open door results in a fuel loss of 10 litres/hour. For a 4,000 hour furnace operation, this translates into a loss of approximately Rs. 4 lakh per year. 4. Insulation • Repair damaged insulation (A bare steam pipe of 150 mm diameter and 100 m length, carrying saturated steam at 8 kg/cm2 would waste 25,000 litres furnace oil in a year.) • Insulate any hot or cold metal or insulation. • Replace wet insulation. • Use an infrared gun to check for cold wall areas during cold weather or hot wall areas during hot weather. • Ensure that all insulated surfaces are cladded with aluminum • Insulate all flanges, valves and couplings • Insulate open tanks (70% heat losses can be reduced by floating a layer of 45 mm diameter polypropylene (plastic) balls on the surface of 90 0C hot liquid/condensate). 5. Waste heat recovery • Recover heat from flue gas, engine cooling water, engine exhaust, low pressure waste steam, drying oven exhaust, boiler blowdown, etc. • Recover heat from incinerator off-gas. • Use waste heat for fuel oil heating, boiler feedwater heating, outside air heating, etc. • Use chiller waste heat to preheat hot water. • Use heat pumps. • Use absorption refrigeration. • Use thermal wheels, run-around systems, heat pipe systems, and air-to-air exchangers. ELECTRICAL UTILITIES 1. Electricity Distribution System • Optimise the tariff structure with utility supplier • Schedule your operations to maintain a high load factor • Shift loads to off-peak times if possible. • Minimise maximum demand by tripping loads through a demand controller • Stagger start-up times for equipment with large starting currents to minimize load peaking. • Use standby electric generation equipment for on-peak high load periods. • Correct power factor to at least 0.90 under rated load conditions. • Relocate transformers close to main loads. • Set transformer taps to optimum settings. • Disconnect primary power to transformers that do not serve any active loads • Consider on-site electric generation or cogeneration. • Export power to grid if you have any surplus in your captive generation • Check utility electric meter with your own meter. • Shut off unnecessary computers, printers, and copiers at night. 2. Motors • Properly size to the load for optimum efficiency. (High efficiency motors offer of 4 - 5% higher efficiency than standard motors) • Use energy-efficient motors where economical. • Use synchronous motors to improve power factor. • Check alignment. • Provide proper ventilation (For every 10 oC increase in motor operating temperature over recommended peak, the motor life is estimated to be halved) • Check for under-voltage and over-voltage conditions. • Balance the three-phase power supply. (An imbalanced voltage can reduce 3 - 5% in motor input power) • Demand efficiency restoration after motor rewinding. (If rewinding is not done properly, the efficiency can be reduced by 5 - 8%) 3. Drives • Use variable-speed drives for large variable loads. • Use high-efficien111cy gear sets. • Use precision alignment. • Check belt tension regularly. • Eliminate variable-pitch pulleys. • Use flat belts as alternatives to v-belts. • Use synthetic lubricants for large gearboxes. • Eliminate eddy current couplings. • Shut them off when not needed. 4. Fans • Use smooth, well-rounded air inlet cones for fan air intakes. • Avoid poor flow distribution at the fan inlet. • Minimize fan inlet and outlet obstructions. • Clean screens, filters, and fan blades regularly. • Use aerofoil-shaped fan blades. • Minimize fan speed. • Use low-slip or flat belts. • Check belt tension regularly. • Eliminate variable pitch pulleys. • Use variable speed drives for large variable fan loads. • Use energy-efficient motors for continuous or near-continuous operation • Eliminate leaks in ductwork. • Minimise bends in ductwork • Turn fans off when not needed. 5. Blowers • Use smooth, well-rounded air inlet ducts or cones for air intakes. • Minimize blower inlet and outlet obstructions. • Clean screens and filters regularly. • Minimize blower speed. • Use low-slip or no-slip belts. • Check belt tension regularly. • Eliminate variable pitch pulleys. • Use variable speed drives for large variable blower loads. • Use energy-efficient motors for continuous or near-continuous operation. • Eliminate ductwork leaks. • Turn blowers off when they are not needed. 6. Pumps • Operate pumping near best efficiency point. • Modify pumping to minimize throttling. • Adapt to wide load variation with variable speed drives or sequenced control of smaller units. • Stop running both pumps -- add an auto-start for an on-line spare or add a booster pump in the problem area. • Use booster pumps for small loads requiring higher pressures. • Increase fluid temperature differentials to reduce pumping rates. • Repair seals and packing to minimize water waste. • Balance the system to minimize flows and reduce pump power requirements. • Use siphon effect to advantage: don't waste pumping head with a free-fall (gravity) return. 7. Compressors • Consider variable speed drive for variable load on positive displacement compressors. • Use a synthetic lubricant if the compressor manufacturer permits it. • Be sure lubricating oil temperature is not too high (oil degradation and lowered viscosity) and not too low (condensation contamination). • Change the oil filter regularly. • Periodically inspect compressor intercoolers for proper functioning. • Use waste heat from a very large compressor to power an absorption chiller or preheat process or utility feeds. • Establish a compressor efficiency-maintenance program. Start with an energy audit and follow-up, then make a compressor efficiency-maintenance program a part of your continuous energy management program. 8. Chillers • Increase the chilled water temperature set point if possible. • Use the lowest temperature condenser water available that the chiller can handle. (Reducing condensing temperature by 5.5 0C, results in a 20 - 25% decrease in compressor power consumption) • Increase the evaporator temperature (5.50C increase in evaporator temperature reduces compressor power consumption by 20 - 25%) • Clean heat exchangers when fouled. (1 mm scale build-up on condenser tubes can increase energy consumption by 40%) • Optimize condenser water flow rate and refrigerated water flow rate. • Replace old chillers or compressors with new higher-efficiency models. • Use water-cooled rather than air-cooled chiller condensers. • Use energy-efficient motors for continuous or near-continuous operation. • Specify appropriate fouling factors for condensers. • Do not overcharge oil. • Install a control system to coordinate multiple chillers. • Study part-load characteristics and cycling costs to determine the most-efficient mode for operating multiple chillers. • Run the chillers with the lowest energy consumption. It saves energy cost, fuels a base load. • Avoid oversizing -- match the connected load. • Isolate off-line chillers and cooling towers. • Establish a chiller efficiency-maintenance program. Start with an energy audit and follow-up, then make a chiller efficiency-maintenance program a part of your continuous energy management program. 9. HVAC (Heating / Ventilation / Air Conditioning) • Tune up the HVAC control system. • Consider installing a building automation system (BAS) or energy management system (EMS) or restoring an out-of-service one. • Balance the system to minimize flows and reduce blower/fan/pump power requirements. • Eliminate or reduce reheat whenever possible. • Use appropriate HVAC thermostat setback. • Use morning pre-cooling in summer and pre-heating in winter (i.e. -- before electrical peak hours). • Use building thermal lag to minimize HVAC equipment operating time. • In winter during unoccupied periods, allow temperatures to fall as low as possible without freezing water lines or damaging stored materials. • In summer during unoccupied periods, allow temperatures to rise as high as possible without damaging stored materials. • Improve control and utilization of outside air. • Use air-to-air heat exchangers to reduce energy requirements for heating and cooling of outside air. • Reduce HVAC system operating hours (e.g. -- night, weekend). • Optimize ventilation. • Ventilate only when necessary. To allow some areas to be shut down when unoccupied, install dedicated HVAC systems on continuous loads (e.g. -- computer rooms). • Provide dedicated outside air supply to kitchens, cleaning rooms, combustion equipment, etc. to avoid excessive exhausting of conditioned air. • Use evaporative cooling in dry climates. • Reduce humidification or dehumidification during unoccupied periods. • Use atomization rather than steam for humidification where possible. • Clean HVAC unit coils periodically and comb mashed fins. • Upgrade filter banks to reduce pressure drop and thus lower fan power requirements. • Check HVAC filters on a schedule (at least monthly) and clean/change if appropriate. • Check pneumatic controls air compressors for proper operation, cycling, and maintenance. • Isolate air conditioned loading dock areas and cool storage areas using high-speed doors or clear PVC strip curtains. • Install ceiling fans to minimize thermal stratification in high-bay areas. • Relocate air diffusers to optimum heights in areas with high ceilings. • Consider reducing ceiling heights. • Eliminate obstructions in front of radiators, baseboard heaters, etc. • Check reflectors on infrared heaters for cleanliness and proper beam direction. • Use professionally-designed industrial ventilation hoods for dust and vapor control. • Use local infrared heat for personnel rather than heating the entire area. • Use spot cooling and heating (e.g. -- use ceiling fans for personnel rather than cooling the entire area). • Purchase only high-efficiency models for HVAC window units. • Put HVAC window units on timer control. • Don't oversize cooling units. (Oversized units will "short cycle" which results in poor humidity control.) • Install multi-fueling capability and run with the cheapest fuel available at the time. • Consider dedicated make-up air for exhaust hoods. (Why exhaust the air conditioning or heat if you don't need to?) • Minimize HVAC fan speeds. • Consider desiccant drying of outside air to reduce cooling requirements in humid climates. • Consider ground source heat pumps. • Seal leaky HVAC ductwork. • Seal all leaks around coils. • Repair loose or damaged flexible connections (including those under air handling units). • Eliminate simultaneous heating and cooling during seasonal transition periods. • Zone HVAC air and water systems to minimize energy use. • Inspect, clean, lubricate, and adjust damper blades and linkages. • Establish an HVAC efficiency-maintenance program. Start with an energy audit and follow-up, then make an HVAC efficiency-maintenance program a part of your continuous energy management program. 10. Refrigeration • Use water-cooled condensers rather than air-cooled condensers. • Challenge the need for refrigeration, particularly for old batch processes. • Avoid oversizing -- match the connected load. • Consider gas-powered refrigeration equipment to minimize electrical demand charges. • Use "free cooling" to allow chiller shutdown in cold weather. • Use refrigerated water loads in series if possible. • Convert firewater or other tanks to thermal storage. • Don't assume that the old way is still the best -- particularly for energy-intensive low temperature systems. • Correct inappropriate brine or glycol concentration that adversely affects heat transfer and/or pumping energy. • If it sweats, insulate it, but if it is corroding, replace it first. • Make adjustments to minimize hot gas bypass operation. • Inspect moisture/liquid indicators. • Consider change of refrigerant type if it will improve efficiency. • Check for correct refrigerant charge level. • Inspect the purge for air and water leaks. • Establish a refrigeration efficiency-maintenance program. Start with an energy audit and follow-up, then make a refrigeration efficiency-maintenance program a part of your continuous energy management program. 11. Cooling towers • Control cooling tower fans based on leaving water temperatures. • Control to the optimum water temperature as determined from cooling tower and chiller performance data. • Use two-speed or variable-speed drives for cooling tower fan control if the fans are few. Stage the cooling tower fans with on-off control if there are many. • Turn off unnecessary cooling tower fans when loads are reduced. • Cover hot water basins (to minimize algae growth that contributes to fouling). • Balance flow to cooling tower hot water basins. • Periodically clean plugged cooling tower water distribution nozzles. • Install new nozzles to obtain a more-uniform water pattern. • Replace splash bars with self-extinguishing PVC cellular-film fill. • On old counterflow cooling towers, replace old spray-type nozzles with new square-spray ABS practically-non-clogging nozzles. • Replace slat-type drift eliminators with high-efficiency, low-pressure-drop, self-extinguishing, PVC cellular units. • If possible, follow manufacturer's recommended clearances around cooling towers and relocate or modify structures, signs, fences, dumpsters, etc. that interfere with air intake or exhaust. • Optimize cooling tower fan blade angle on a seasonal and/or load basis. • Correct excessive and/or uneven fan blade tip clearance and poor fan balance. • Use a velocity pressure recovery fan ring. • Divert clean air-conditioned building 12. Lighting • Reduce excessive illumination levels to standard levels using switching, delamping, etc. (Know the electrical effects before doing delamping.) • Aggressively control lighting with clock timers, delay timers, photocells, and/or occupancy sensors. • Install efficient alternatives to incandescent lighting, mercury vapor lighting, etc. Efficacy (lumens/watt) of various technologies range from best to worst approximately as follows: low pressure sodium, high pressure sodium, metal halide, fluorescent, mercury vapor, incandescent. • Select ballasts and lamps carefully with high power factor and long-term efficiency in mind. • Upgrade obsolete fluorescent systems to Compact fluorescents and electronic ballasts • Consider daylighting, skylights, etc. • Consider painting the walls a lighter color and using less lighting fixtures or lower wattages. • Use task lighting and reduce background illumination. • Re-evaluate exterior lighting strategy, type, and control. Control it aggressively. • Change exit signs from incandescent to LED. 13. DG sets • Optimise loading • Use waste heat to generate steam/hot water /power an absorption chiller or preheat process or utility feeds. • Use jacket and head cooling water for process needs • Clean air filters regularly • Insulate exhaust pipes to reduce DG set room temperatures • Use cheaper heavy fuel oil for capacities more than 1MW 14. Buildings • Seal exterior cracks/openings/gaps with caulk, gasketing, weatherstripping, etc. • Consider new thermal doors, thermal windows, roofing insulation, etc. • Install windbreaks near exterior doors. • Replace single-pane glass with insulating glass. • Consider covering some window and skylight areas with insulated wall panels inside the building. • If visibility is not required but light is required, consider replacing exterior windows with insulated glass block. • Consider tinted glass, reflective glass, coatings, awnings, overhangs, draperies, blinds, and shades for sunlit exterior windows. • Use landscaping to advantage. • Add vestibules or revolving doors to primary exterior personnel doors. • Consider automatic doors, air curtains, strip doors, etc. at high-traffic passages between conditioned and non-conditioned spaces. Use self-closing doors if possible. • Use intermediate doors in stairways and vertical passages to minimize building stack effect. • Use dock seals at shipping and receiving doors. • Bring cleaning personnel in during the working day or as soon after as possible to minimize lighting and HVAC costs. 15. Water & Wastewater • Recycle water, particularly for uses with less-critical quality requirements. • Recycle water, especially if sewer costs are based on water consumption. • Balance closed systems to minimize flows and reduce pump power requirements. • Eliminate once-through cooling with water. • Use the least expensive type of water that will satisfy the requirement. • Fix water leaks. • Test for underground water leaks. (It's easy to do over a holiday shutdown.) • Check water overflow pipes for proper operating level. • Automate blowdown to minimize it. • Provide proper tools for wash down -- especially self-closing nozzles. • Install efficient irrigation. • Reduce flows at water sampling stations. • Eliminate continuous overflow at water tanks. • Promptly repair leaking toilets and faucets. • Use water restrictors on faucets, showers, etc. • Use self-closing type faucets in restrooms. • Use the lowest possible hot water temperature. • Do not use a central heating system hot water boiler to provide service hot water during the cooling season -- install a smaller, more-efficient system for the cooling season service hot water. • Consider the installation of a thermal solar system for warm water. • If water must be heated electrically, consider accumulation in a large insulated storage tank to minimize heating at on-peak electric rates. • Use multiple, distributed, small water heaters to minimize thermal losses in large piping systems. • Use freeze protection valves rather than manual bleeding of lines. 16. Miscellaneous • Meter any unmetered utilities. Know what is normal efficient use. Track down causes of deviations. • Shut down spare, idling, or unneeded equipment. • Make sure that all of the utilities to redundant areas are turned off -- including utilities like compressed air and cooling water. • Install automatic control to efficiently coordinate multiple air compressors, chillers, cooling tower cells, boilers, etc. • Renegotiate utilities contracts to reflect current loads and variations. • Consider buying utilities from neighbors, particularly to handle peaks. • Leased space often has low-bid inefficient equipment. Consider upgrades if your lease will continue for several more years. • Adjust fluid temperatures within acceptable limits to minimize undesirable heat transfer in long pipelines. • Minimize use of flow bypasses and minimize bypass flow rates. • Provide restriction orifices in purges (nitrogen, steam, etc.). • Eliminate unnecessary flow measurement orifices. • Consider alternatives to high pressure drops across valves. • Turn off winter heat tracing that is on in summer.


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